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Emanuel Ringelblum

Born: November 21, 1900
Died: Executed in March of 1944
Career Interest: Professor
Diary Title: Notes from the Warsaw Ghetto: The Journal of Emanuel Ringelblum

“New reports are continually arriving about the program of systematic extermination of Jewish children and old people. The same thing that happened in the provinces is now going on in Biala Podloska, where sixty wagons of children under ten and old folks over sixty disappeared. Clearly, there’s no camp involved, but simply annihilation of the very young and the very old.”

– Emanuel Ringelblum on June 25, 1942

Ringelblum was a teacher before the war, and his work in the Warsaw Ghetto gave us a deep glimpse into the conditions within the ghetto through his secret archive through the Oneg Shabbat.
Ringelblum chronicled the day-to-day life in the ghetto, and his writing is available through “Notes from the Warsaw Ghetto: The Journal of Emanuel Ringelblum.” Ringelblum witnessed tragedies across the ghetto, and was ultimately reported by a Polish citizen since he and his family were smuggled out of the ghetto. The Germans found him and arrested him.
Ringelblum and his family were executed in the ruins of the Warsaw Ghetto in March of 1944.